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Friday, September 30, 2022

History about Mars Rovers, How many Mars Rovers have there been?

For the last 50 years, humans have searched for different planets and discovered different planets too. As space research progresses, scientists have tried to send satellites and rovers to different planets. Scientists are looking for a new planet as a result of world climate change. Mars is the most acceptable planet in the discovery of scientists.

This subject has been tried seven times to send rover to Mars and two are still actively working. So today we’ll try to tell us what caused The Mars rovers to be out or what information scientists could discover.

Image Credit: Nasa

Details of Mars Rovers Mission

1. Mars 2
2. Mars 3
3. Sojourner
4. Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2
5. Beagle 2
6. Spirit
7. Opportunity
8. Curiosity

1. Mars 2

Image Credit: Wikipedia

The Soviet Union sent orbiter satellites and lander for its first research on Mars on May 19, 1971. It was a series of launch missions that were launched with N1 rocket. The primary objectives of scientists were to determine the surface and clouds of Mars, the temperature of Mars, photography of the surface, to measure the characteristics of the atmosphere, to observe the solar wind and interlocutor and Mars magnetic fields. And to re-serve as a means of sending that information back to earth. But sadly, when the lander went to land on the Mars planet, it was failed due to dust storm.

2. Mars 3

After the Mars 2 was launched and 9 days later, Soviet Union was again launched Mars 3 on May 28, 1971, to Mars. After the Mars 2 lander crashed on the Surface of Mars for the first time, scientists re-researched and decided to send the Mars 3 spacecraft. And on December 2, 1971, mars 3 lander became the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on Mars.

As a result, space research in human history led to a new history of success. But again, it landed and then it was destroyed after it was active for 110 seconds. But for the first time it was only a time to send a grey picture to scientists. But Mars 2 orbiter and Mars 3 orbiter was also able to circle over Mars and for eight months they sent images to Earth.

3. Sojourner

Image Credit: WikiPedia

After Soviet Union, Nasa built a robotic rover to send landers to Mars for the first time. This robotic rover is called “Sojourner”. Sojourner robotic Mars Rover landed in the Aris Valleys region of Mars on July 4, 1997. And this land rover was active for 95 days with 92 soles.

This rover was the first wheeled vehicle to make it move on the surface of Mars. Several cameras and hardware have been used in the front and back of the rover to carry out scientific experiments and 7 soles were designed for permanent missions.

The rover contacted Earth through Pathfinder Base Station and last shared information on Earth on September 27, 1997. The last signal received from the rover came on the morning of October 7, 1997. And on March 10, 1998, the Sojourner rover mission officially ended. NASA spent $280 million to do this mission.

4. Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2

Image Credit: Nasa

Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 was an ambitious mission of NASA’s investigation of the New Millennium program and was intended to set up a spacecraft on frozen terrain near the edge of Mars’ South Pole cap. The main objective of the mission was to dig up water ice with a robotic arm and collect all that information for research.

Two small probes called Deep Space 2 that were designed to research the Surface of Mars to test new technology. However, it was sent to land without a parachute using an aero hell impactor but NASA’s mission could not land successfully and the Mars Polar Lander /Deep Space 2 was lost on December 3, 1999. But officially, the mission was declared a failure on March 13, 2000.

5. Beagle 2

Image Credit: Nasa

The Beagle 2 British Mars lander which was launched by the European Space Agency mars express mission on June 2, 2003. It is an astrobiology mission to study the research for past life on the surface of Mars and 1.5 meters below.

The spacecraft was successfully launched in 2003 on Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, Russia and was scheduled to land on the surface of Mars on December 25, 2003. But it did not have any contact when it landed on Mars. And NASA announced in February 2004 that the mission was no longer found after numerous attempts to communicate with the spacecraft.

Image Credit: UK Space Agency/PA

6. Spirit

Image Credit: NASA

NASA again launched another Mars landing called “Spirit” to Mars on June 10, 2003 with Delta 7925-9.5 (no. D298) Vehicle. And on January 4, 2014, it successfully landed on Mars. Panoramic cameras (Pancam) for taking pictures around, navigation cameras (Navcam) for navigation of surrounding areas and miniature thermal emission spectrometer (Mini-TES) cameras have been used to take thermal pictures.

In addition, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), Magnets tools to collect dust particles and technology such as Microscopic Imager (MI), Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) have been used. Nasa’s main objective was to explore different types of rocks and soil types and then find clues to past water or its activities on Mars. Finally, 7 years 11 months 13 days, 25 May 2011, it was able to provide information to NASA scientists, then NASA officially declared the mission to be over.

7. Opportunity

Image Credit: NASA

On July 7, 2003, Opportunity was launched to land on Mars and look for signs of past life. After a seven-month long journey, an air-filled bag was used for landing and successfully landed on Mars. Through this mission, scientists discovered that long ago a region of Mars was wet for an extended period of time and it is believed that prana also existed here. This robotic rover was active on Mars from 2004 to mid-2018 and then its mission was over.

8. Curiosity

Image Credit: NASA

Curiosity Mars Rover is like a car shape that was created by NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). It was designed to explore the Gale crater of Mars. Curiosity rover was launched from Cape Canaveral (CCAFS) at 15:02:00 UTC on 26 November 2011 and after travelling 560 million kilometers (350 million miles), the rover landed on The Aeolis Palus inside the Gal Crater on Mars 6 August 2012, 05:17:57 UTC.

Now the most successful Mars study of The Living NASA is a successful mission of Curiosity Mars Rover. It has now sent photographs of 790,627 Mars lands to scientists. The mission aims to have a small life on Mars called germs or the right environmental conditions for life? Early in this mission, Curiosity’s scientific tools found evidence of chemicals and minerals from past habitable environments on Mars. Now It is actively providing us with information day by day.

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